Cytochrome Measurements

The power plants of the cell..

The vital process of production of energy by burning oxygen takes place in mitochondria. At their cell membranes an electrochemical gradient build up by the respiratory chain is used for controlled burning of hydrogen with oxygen. The energy produced in this process is stored in ATP.

...and their enzymes

Electron transfer -the deciding part of respiratory chain- is managed by cytochromes (cell pigments), that are -according to their state of activity- oxidised or reduced. If they pass electrons on oxygen, they are oxidised and respiratory chain or internal respiration is in full process.

Energy means life

Human beings depend on this kind of production of energy. Therefore work of mitochondria is a parameter for ongoing vitality of cells. Cytochromes are an early warning system, e.g. at oxygen deficiency. On the other hand redox state is a prove for function and vitality of cell.

Redox state of cytochromes

Cytochromes are the pigments of tissue (cyto= cell, chrôma=colour; Greek).  During penetration of tissue light takes colour of cytochromes. The spectra of white light is changed on its way through tissue. Way of change of back scattered light depends on redox state of cytochromes.
With O2C you can record the spectra, visualize them with usual data processing software and judge changes in redox state.

Fields of Applications

In transplantation medicine an optimal condition of the organs is essential during the critical time until reimplantation. Until now condition of organs only could be observed indirectly by metabolic products  like pH, lactate. Recording the spectra allows visualizing directly aerobic condition of the tissue and different aspects of metabolism changing and modulation substances can be investigated.
Also scientific research often uses perfused organs and cell cultures to investigate physiological, biochemical and pharmacological interactions. Therefore you have to know quality of experimental set up regarding the oxygen supply of the organ or cell cultures and observe vitality of cells and organs during experiment.